STONS HISTORY

Rock is a solid material of the earth’s crust, composed of one or more minerals that are linked together. In geology, cumulative rock is a natural and solid mineral of minerals or minerals. The outer layer is a solid ground of the rock. The rocks are three species: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphosed. Knowledge of stones is called metaphysics. The main component of all stones is silica.

The rocks are made up of simpler parts called minerals. Minerals are solid, natural, usually crystalline, inorganic, homogeneous and with chemical compounds. So far, more than 3,000 minerals are known in nature, with only about 24 minerals found in rocks in the earth’s crust abundantly called them rocky minerals.Because the minerals that make up the rocks are diverse, they are divided into four categories depending on the presence of some other chemical compounds in them:


Carbonates


Sulfates


Oxides


Silicates

Rocks and minerals are used in building, industry, medicine, etc.

Types of building stones

Natural stone: All building stones that are extracted from natural mines and used after productivity. Artificial stones: All building stones built in the kitchen and made up of different materials and materials by mankind. Based on specific gravity: heavy weight gems, rocks with a specific gravity of more than 1.8 grams per cubic centimeter, and light gems are a handful of rocks with a specific gravity of less than 1.8 grams per cubic centimeter. Based on compressive strength: heavy stones with a compressive strength of 100 to 1000 mega-Pascal. Light stones with a compressive strength of 4 to 200 mega-Pascal. Based on the softening factor: If the value of this coefficient is from 0.6 to 1, it is used to build the building.

Artificial stone Crystal Crystalline Polymer Clay
Artificial stone is a name for various kinds of artificial stone products that have been used since the 18th century. Artificial stones are used in civil engineering projects, construction, industrial applications, and so on.
One of the first artificial stones called Lithodipyra (AKA Coade stone) was produced between 1769 and 1833. After that, the production of synthetic stones continued in different ways.

Synthetic Polymeric Stone – In other words, rock is produced based on the use of cement concrete, in which sand as a fine-grained filler is one of the most important raw materials. Polymer compounds and chemical additives create adhesion between all components and provide resistance to artificial stone. Iron oxide pigments that are ultraviolet and alkaline are colored with the desired color. The combination obtained in this way is cast in silicon and polymer molds that have rocks and stones of natural stones and give these rocks a completely natural look. In terms of price, artificial gems have a much lower price than natural gems, because the difficult work on natural stone to deliver it to the market and its use can be unnecessary for artificial stones, with a smaller weight and a smaller thickness. It allows us to use three times as much natural gems as we can.

The Advantages of Artificial Stone Plast Cement – Denne Stone:

It is much lighter than natural stones and makes it easier to work with. Can be used in the exterior and interior of buildings. Cutting and arranging artificial rocks is easy. Installing artificial rocks is very easy and there is no need to use special equipment to prevent falls. It is much cheaper than natural stones. The technology of artificial stone production provides the possibility of rock production in various designs and colors, which can result in beautiful and diverse decorative designs. In contrast to the temperature, it creates a very good insulation. More resistant due to special formulation and the use of new technologies (resistance about 3 times the concrete) Lighter and easier to work with because of a lower specific weight Very cheap because of the use of new technologies The possibility of production in various designs and colors using a variety of templates (now the company of Dernica produces these stones in about 20 different colors and more than 50 different designs and markets). The possibility of production based on the type and conditions of use (use in the exterior or interior of the building, floor, wall, facade, decorative, etc.) by changing the formulation of composite materials and various molds (now the company is also a very diverse product of synthetic polymeric stones ” “Includes: stone, antique and decorative stone, mosaic, paving, flooring, cornice, staircase, staircase and table of production and to market.) No need for high cutting because of products in different sizes Easy installation and no need to use special equipment to prevent falls due to special arrangements during the molding.

Natural Stone
These rocks are named in a variety of categories, sometimes referred to as rock names as their name. The most common building stones are:
Granite


Gabbro ,Sandstone including limestone sandstone – Silica sandstone – Iron oxide sand – Dolomite sandstoneDiorite


Quartzite


Marble

Travertine

General Specifications for Stone Selection for Construction Use
The rocks used in construction work must have the following characteristics: 1- The rock fabric should have a healthy structure, that is, without grooves, cracks and loose veins (such as worms) 2. without any bumps 3. No caries 4. Uniform, uniform and homogeneous 5. Construction stone should not absorb high water, so do not: A. Dissolve or dissolve in water B- All or part of it will feed more than 8% of its own weight 6. Construction stone should not be contaminated with natural and artificial materials 7. Stone must withstand the physical and chemical conditions of the environment, therefore: A. Resistance to wind, freezing, temperature changes and in the presence of water flow in front of it and all deterioration factors. B. Resist acidic and alkaline chemical environments as well as hydroxylation and oxidation action 8. The compressive strength for the load bearing parts should not be less than 150 kg per square centimeter 9- Abrasion resistant

Resistance to building gems

Resistance in lexical means means of bearing pressure and is measured for different rocks. Types of stones are divided into two types of heavy and light heavy metals, such that heavy stones tolerate compressive strengths of 500 to 1000 MPa, and stones with tolerances ranging from 4 to 200 MPa are called styles, but rocks are not only due to pressure weights Erosion and change. It is interesting to know that the main factors influencing rock resistance are weathering, cold, heat and fire. Weathering creates gases in the air of polluted cities, such as carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide, which cause changes in color, fracture and even the removal of construction gems. Other weathering factors, such as freezing and evaporation of water in the cavities of the rocks, and even the color of the paint and the thermal effects of sunlight, can be mentioned. It should be noted that to select the most durable building stones, it is important to pay attention to the various heaviest features, as well as the climate and climate of that area, for example, the types of travertine, which are a type of limestone, are not suitable for areas with high humidity, and very soon Eroded.

All content on this page is taken from Wikipedia.

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